A large amount of building construction in small urban areas consists of one to two story fly ash brick in Lahore houses.
The bearing wall of these houses was built (without any reinforcement).
The analysis of past earthquakes has shown that these buildings are not very stable against earthquakes, and in almost all past earthquakes, some unfinished houses have been destroyed.
In the by laws for the design of buildings against earthquakes (by laws 2800), the construction of these buildings is limited to two separate floors, excluding the basement.
Usually, ordinary clay brick does not have good resistance to corrosive agents.
This is a defect that often occurs in buildings where bricks have been used in the construction of their walls or seats, and in the vicinity of which there are corrosive factors such as water with harmful salts, which causes the building to be vulnerable.
The gradual corrosion of the brick used at the base of the wall reduces its effective thickness and makes it vulnerable.
This phenomenon can be seen in the brick buildings built in the cities and villages along the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea, as well as in areas such as Yazd and Kerman, where the water has a lot of salts.
It increases the vulnerability of the building.
There are also buildings that have very little connection with each other and the mortar, and not much resistance is predicted for them against earthquakes.
Of course, it is one of the major disadvantages that plagues the country’s construction industry today and is the source of many failures.
Inaccuracy in making mortar and according to its consumption time.
Today, unfortunately, in the production of cement mortars, no attention is paid to the mixing ratio.
Sand is used with a lot of dust on it, muddy water is used, water is added to it regularly to achieve the required workability.
Maybe an hour has passed since the final setting of the cement, but it is loosened with water and used.
In the resistance of brick walls, the following two things play an important role: A Sanding, so that if the bricks are not sanded well, the water will suck the mortar.
And the mortar burns, so to speak.
Of course, if the brick is also saturated with water, the mortar will not stick to it enough.
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